What Is A Computer? How Does It Work?

what is a computer

Do you want to know what is a computer? What are the benefits & advantages of using a computer system? We have got you covered. 

In this post, we have discussed all the basics of a computer system, from its meaning to how it works, what it can do, its advantages & disadvantages. 

Let’s get right into it.

What is a Computer?

A computer is an electronic device or machine that accepts data from users to perform logical and mathematical operations and gives the required information or results. This is the definition of a computer. This smart device runs on electricity and works on the instructions provided by the user. Computers run only by the combination of software and hardware. 

The word computer is derived from the Latin word “Computer,” meaning calculation. This is because the computer could only do mathematical calculations like subtracting or adding in the early stages of invention. Now a computer can do calculations along with many other tasks. 

Due to these features of computers, be it a classroom, office, school, college, banks, airports, etc. 

What is a Computer Full Form?

Not many people know about computers in full form. 

















How does a Computer Work?

Here we will discuss in simple ways how a computer works. 

The computer basically works on four modules:

  1. Input
  2. Processing
  3. Output
  4. Storage


Input refers to the information or instructions put in by the user. It can be any kind of data. This data is put into the computer memory with the help of input devices like a Mouse, Keyboard, Microphone.


When a user inputs data into the computer, it then processes those instructions to give the results.

A CPU does processing functions in the computer. The CPU has a microprocessor chip that is way faster than a human brain.

For instance, if you input arithmetic or logical equations, the computer will process them to give you the answer.

Or your input is clicking on a file using the mouse; the computer will process the instruction and open the files and folder for you.

When computer processes input data, it is stored temporarily in RAM (Random Access Memory).


When the input data is processed, the computer generates an output/result. This output is visible to the user on the computer screen.

There are several types of output devices.

Soft copy and hard copy

Soft copy is the information or output displayed on the computer. A hard copy is when this output is printed on paper.


Computer storage is a space where the device stores all the information for later use after processing is complete.

The computer has two types of storage: Permanent and Temporary (RAM)

Basic Parts of Computer System

Whether it is a home computer system or gaming PC, there are five main parts of a computer system that complete the device.

  • A motherboard
  • A Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • A Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), 
  • Random Access Memory (RAM), 
  • Storage: Solid State Drive (SSD) or Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

All these components are attached to the motherboard and then put into a protective case that we see as a CPU body. Most computers have a unique design and different hardware installed; however, the component remains the same across computer systems.


The motherboard is the most important part of a computer system. All components of a computer can communicate through the motherboard. Motherboard acts as a glue that holds everything together. 

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The CPU is the brain of a computer system and other basic parts. It is directly connected to another board and communicates with all the other components of a computer.

When you write a code in the computer, it breaks down the cod into a machine assembly language that the processor understands. It fetches data, decodes input, and executes functions. 

All the processes a computer system handles are done with the help of a CPU.

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

Graphics Processing Unit takes care of the visual art in the computer system. You must have heard people talk about graphic cards, especially gamers, how one card is better than the other in creating visuals.

Not only video games but a graphic card is also important for any imaging task like executing craft, 3D models using the software. A Graphic card directly communicates with the display monitor.

Random Access Memory (RAM)

RAM is the volatile or temporary memory of the computer system. It stores data that is accessed and processed by the CPU frequently. Every time you restart, the computer memory stored in RAM erases. 

RAM helps in starting and closes games and programs quickly.


Every computer system needs storage to store all the input and output. It is known as HDD Hard Disk Drive or SSD Solid State Drive.

HDD is made of an actual disk where the computer stores all its data. The computer’s mechanical system reads HDD.

SSD is like a sim card with no moving parts and is also faster than HDD. This way, no time is spent in waiting for the mechanical arm and in finding data on HDD’s physical location.

Benefits of Using Computer

Here are some common benefits of using a computer system

  • It Saves Your Time
  • Gets Information
  • Keep Your Entertained
  • Can Make Money
  • Data storing Capability
  • Multitasking of Computer
  • Product Employment
  • Perform Complicated Calculations
  • Connect on the Internet 

Advantages & Disadvantages Of Computer System

What is the Advantage of a Computer?

  • Computers are now being used everywhere on a large scale. One biggest reason for this mass scale usage is the fast processing speed. Computers can do even the most difficult calculations easily.
  • You can find anything and everything on a computer. It stores a lot of data in one small space, saving you time for searching your important files. Also, if you have access to the Internet, you can even store your data on cloud storage and keep it secure.
  • With a computer, you can get in touch with your family members and friends at any time and anywhere via email, video class, social networking, etc.

What are the Disadvantages of Computers?

  • While computers can be used in so many beneficial ways, some people use them to commit malpractices.
  • Also according to various researches computers and mobiles are harmful to human health.
  • It causes more damage to the eyes. Due to continuous strain on eyes by viewing on computer screws, your eye-sight can decrease.

Features of Computer System

These are some of the basic features of a computer system.

  • Speed
  • Logical Decision
  • Diligence
  •  Accuracy
  • Automatic
  • Storage Capacity


Computers are many times faster than the human brain. It can perform a lot of tasks within 2 seconds that humans will take weeks to complete. With the help of a computer, you can perform millions of calculations within a few seconds and minutes.


A computer is very accurate. It will never show errors in calculation. When we do get errors, it is because we input the wrong information. The accuracy of computers is constantly rising. It can perform hundreds of operations with accurate analysis and carry out millions of calculations speedily.


A computer does not need money to perform operations, and it never gets tired. With your full concentration, it can keep working for many hours, without any error.

 Storage Capacity

A computer system can store and restore any amount of information because of its secondary storage capacity. It can also take any information and store it for future reference. 


A computer is an automatic machine because once it gets on the job, it will carry on until the work is done without needing any human assistance.

Logical Decision

Computers can make logical decisions in nanoseconds, like making Railway reservations, Arithmetic Calculations.

What are the Limitations of Computers?

Just like a computer has endless benefits, it also has some limitations.

  • Cannot make a decision on its own
  • Zero IQ
  • No Feeling
  • Lack of common-sense
  • Computers can’t Express their Idea.
  • Computers can’t Think.
  • Depend on the user input
  • Computers can’t Implement
  • It needs the expertise to work on a computer.


What are the major types of computers?

The four major types of computer are:

  • Supercomputer 
  • Mainframe Computer
  • Minicomputer
  • Microcomputer

What are the five basic parts of a computer?

  •  Motherboard.
  • A Graphics Processing Unit
  • A Central Processing Unit 
  • Random Access Memory
  • Storage: Solid State Drive or Hard Disk Drive 

How many types of CPU are there?

There are six types of CPU

Single-Core Cpu, Quad Core Cpu, Dual Core Cpu, Octa-Core Cpu, Hexa Core Cpu, and Deca Core Cpu.

What is the main part of the computer?

The CPU or central processing unit is the main part of a computer. A CPU does all the calculations and operations which run a computer. It is made up of a logical unit, control unit, and arithmetic unit.

Final Words:

A computer is an electronic device that processes input or data provided by users to create output. It has the ability to retrieve, store and process data. Computers can be used to write documents, browse the Internet, play games, and so much more.

We hope this post was useful to you. Before you tap to read another post, do not forget to leave a comment below.


Hey There! I am A Makeup Artist turned into a Content writer. Intrigued by the world of digital marketing, I am currently working as an SEO Content Writer. Being a fashion enthusiast I enjoy writing blogs on Beauty, Fashion and Fitness Trends.